Wolf hunting trips in Bulgaria
Canis Lupus L.
In the near past this species was widely distributed throughout the world. Wolves are every-biont” species living in different environmental conditions - forests, tundra, taiga, plains and mountains. The over-intensive hunting together with the change in their natural habitat in the Northern hemisphere have considerably limited their living area and today they are assigned to the category of endangered species.
Systematically the wolf belongs to the family Canis. It has golden-yellow eyes and longer legs, bigger paws, more pronounced and highly developed jaw, longer snout and larger brain compared to the dog. Wolf paws are turned inwards towards its belly, almost touching it. This allows them to run at a speed of 70 km/h. Their fur does not have particular colouring, except for a scar around the eyes. The fur’s color is gray to gray-brown but can be white, red and brown and black (photo of eng. M Mihailov). Wolves are about 66-80 cm high measured at the shoulder and weigh about 25-52 kg. The females are approximately 20% smaller than males.
Way of life and feeding
Wolves are social animals that live and hunt in packs organized in a strict hierarchical order, with clearly defined male and female leaders called alpha male and alpha female. Originally it was thought that the purpose of this social structure is hunting, but some modern authors consider that pack functions are related not only to hunting but also to the successful reproduction. Packs include 2 to 20 wolves, as the packs average in size consist of 6 or 7. Hierarchy in the pack is relatively strict, valid for all activities of the pack: from the order of eating, to that, which wolves are allowed to reproduct. New packs are formed when the male leaves its native wolf pack and obtains a territory. Wolves looking for other wolves with which to form a pack, may travel very long distances, until they find a suitable territory. Single individuals avoid the territories of other wolves, because intruders are either chased away or most often killed.
Wolves are known for their distinctive howl, which is used to call members of the pack at a particular place or to communicate with each other. Observations of packs suggest that howling takes place often at sunset during the summer before the adults go hunting. This is repeated on their return at sunrise. At the end of the summer the cubs are already grown up and howl at the slightest stimulus. Wolves often howl, when defending something.
In the wild wolves live 6-9 years and in the zoos - up to 16 years. Record life expectancy of a wolf is about 20 years. The death rate is high among the cubs and few of them survive until the first winter. The main factors for the death rate in wolves are humans, car accidents and injuries during hunting. All diseases affecting domestic dogs, affect wolves. They adapt easily to changes in the number of prey, so mass starvation is unusual for them. This species retains its population provided that the alpha pair is not killed.
According to the law of nature, usually only the alpha couple in the pack breeds. Mating occurs once a year, between February and May. An interesting fact from the social organization of wolves is that they are usually monogamous – the members of the alpha pair mates only with each other. Sometimes one of the alpha males mates with a subordinate female. This occurs in large packs when there is abundant prey. Pregnancy lasts for 60 to 63 days and the cubs are born blind and completely dependent on their mother; their number is 1-14; 6 or 7 on the average. They remain in the lair until the 8-10th week. The mother is alone with the cubs in the first three weeks, but then all members of the pack help in raisin. The cubs eat food, vomited by older wolves until their 45th day. Then they eat meat, brought by members of the pack. Females reach sexual maturity at 2 years of age, and males – at 3 years. Most of the wolves leave their home pack at the age of 1-3 years.
The wolf is a harmful predator, so that its number must be adjusted. Wolf hunting is extremely interesting and difficult. The hunting is performed with battues, stalking and ambush. The trophy is the head and the skin.
Golden jackal hunting trips in Bulgaria
Canis Aureus L.
The Golden jackal is widely distributed across Asia Minor, North Africa and Southeastern Europe. In the near past in Bulgaria this species was considered rare so shooting was forbidden. Restrictive measures are imposed for the Golden jackal due to the significant increase in its number and extension of the area, seen in the recent years.
In systematic terms it belongs to the family of Canis, as it looks like a wolf, but is smaller than it. The fur colour is grey-yellow. It is darker on the back, and sidelong, on the neck, legs and on both sides of the head it is golden-yellow. Its tail is shaggy with yellow-gray colour and has single darker spots; its end is black. Body length of the jackal reaches up to 100-120 cm and the tail – 20-30 cm.
Way of life and feeding
The Golden jackal hunts mainly at night. It is generally omnivorous and eats carrion and small animals. It eats the eggs of birds nesting on the ground, it causes significant damage to the state reserve, killing rabbits, pheasants and partridges, fawns, and the young of the fallow deer, etc., it also eats fruits, watermelons and melons. The Golden jackal lives singly. After dusk it howls in an unusual way, resembling crying, and all jackals in the close vicinity respond.
The mating period is in March. The pregnancy period lasts 60-63 days. The female gives birth to 4-5, rarely more cubs, in simply constructed small holes in the ground.
The Golden jackal belongs to the group of harmful game. The hunting is realized with battue or enticement with carrion. Its skin is not valuable. The trophy is the head with the jaws and the skin.
Red fox hunting trips in Bulgaria
The Red fox is found in prairies and semideserts, forests, steppes and forest-steppes. You can see it in the suburbs and even in urban areas, living together with other small predators. This species is found everywhere in Bulgaria.
The fur of the Red fox is rust-coloured. It has white belly and black ears and legs. Its eyes are golden-yellow and have distinctive vertically cut pupils like the cats. Its long shaggy tail, which has characteristic white tips, provides balance during jumps. The adult Red fox weighs 4.1-5.4 kg. Body length is 80-110 cm. Its size varies depending on habitat. In autumn and winter its fur is long and thick, and in spring until the end of the summer – short.
Way of life and feeding
Foxes are omnivorous. They eat rodents, insects, fruits, worms, carrion, eggs, mice, other small animals and poultry. The fox is one of the greatest allies in our fight against rodents, which often dominate its menu. They eat 0.5-1 kg food per day on the average.
Fox breeding period is from December to January, and in the northern high parts of its area it is in February-April. Females have an annual oestrus, which lasts 1-6 days. The ovulation is spontaneous. Copulation is noisy and short - it lasts for not more than 20 seconds. Although a female may mate with several males (who fight for it), it finally chooses to live with one only. Males bring food to females up to and after confinement, and generally leave them with the cubs in the mother’s lair”. The average number of fox cubs from one litter is 5 and the maximum is up to 13 fox cubs. The cubs are born blind and weigh 150 grams. They begin to see in about 2 weeks and make their first steps outside the lair in up to 5 weeks. The mother weans them at about the 10th week, when they reach their puberty.
Foxes are active at dusk, but in more densely populated areas they are active mostly at night and evening or early in the morning (at dusk). Generally they hunt singly, and if they find more food, they hide it for later. Each fox marks its territory with urine and faeces. Foxes mate only during winter and in summer they look for food, after they have dug several burrows in these territories. These can be burrows of former inhabitants such as badgers, or newly-dug ones. In winter, they use one main burrow, where the fox lives, and raises its cubs. Smaller burrows are intended for cases of danger and for storage of food. The cubs most often spread rapidly, when they reach sexual maturity (8-10 months), but they frequently remain in their home territory and help raising the next generation.
According to some researchers, individuals that do not breed, make it sure that the cubs will survive, while others say this difference is negligible. Foxes communicate with body language, with its smell and vocalizations (sounds). Voice range is great and the sounds that they make could be I am lost (three yelps) to a scream type near to the human scream.
According to the Convention on International Trade with Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the fox belongs to the endangered species, but most of their populations are stable. Shooting is based on quotas.
Place and significance of the fox in the ecosystem
It is proved that foxes may affect the populations of rodents, including rabbits and birds of prey. They spread the seeds of the fruits, eaten by them. Their positive or negative role in the development of ecosystems, state reserves and poultry-raising must be assessed separately in each case.
According to its biology and way of eating, the Red fox eats a large amount of mice and other harmful rodents, thus contributing to the agriculture. It also destroys a lot of useful game - rabbits, pheasants, partridges. It is a carrier of rabies, that’s why in case of high density of the population it is pursued throughout the year. Her skin is a valuable and demanded. It is hunted with the use of battues, but most often by stalking near enticement. Her skin and skull have trophy value.
Brown bear hunting trips in Bulgaria
Ursus Arctos L.
Brown bears inhabit plains and mountain forests (up to 4000 m altitude) from the tropical regions to the northern polar seas. In Bulgaria this species inhabits the following mountains: Vitosha, Rila, Pirin, Rhodopes, Balkan Mountains; according to data from the hunting classification, the bear's population in Bulgaria counts 900 animals.
Brown bears belong to the group of large mammals, representatives of the Bear family (Ursidae). They all have short, massive body, a relatively large head, small eyes and ears, short tail and five-finger, foot-like paws with long, bent, non-retracting claws. Their fur is thick, rough, shaggy, from light brown to black or white in colour. They have a strong sense of smell and hearing.
Way of life and feeding
Under the climatic conditions in Bulgaria the brown bears are mainly herbivorous, but often they are omnivorous and carnivorous, that's why they are called stravnitsi” (meat-eating bears).
Red bear’s behavior depends on season, inhabited area, age, etc. They are characterized by striking wits, enviable adaptability, imitative reflexes (may be easily trained), but they also manifest high irritability, curiosity (especially in cubs) and swimming skill. If they meet an enemy they can use their claws and hit destructively with their paws, but most characteristic form of attack is biting.
Bears mate every 2-3 years. Couples are formed in May-June. Pregnancy lasts for 7 months and cubs are born (2-4 bear-cubs) in winter. Only their mother takes care of them.
The Brown bear belongs to the harmful game. In view of the fact that this species is still in limited quantity, hunting is based on quotas, as shooting of stravnitsi” (meat-eating bears) is allowed provided that there is proved harmful influence on the forest ecosystems and agriculture in the region. There are trophies that could win from 350 to 550 CIC points. Brown bear’s hide, head, paws and skull are trophies, that’s why they are processed. Bear hunting is exciting, but extremely dangerous.
Brown bear’s meat and especially paws are considered a delicacy, but it is often contaminated with trichinosis and hides a risk of infection for those, who consumed it.
Beech marten hunting trips in Bulgaria
Martes Foina L.
This species is found across Europe and Asia. In Bulgaria the beech marten inhabits forests and fields, but is also found in deserted yards and houses in villages and towns
The beech marten looks like the European pine marten. The fur colour is dark-brown. On the neck it has a white spot that could be sometimes yellowish and always branches out into the legs or is divided in two by a narrow dark stripe. Its feet are uncovered. It reaches 80-85 cm in length.
Way of life and feeding
In the near past the beech marten inhabited forests, with a preference for the rocky areas. Over the past twenty years, it populated in areas near settlements, in abandoned houses or farm buildings. It builds its lair in the rocks, in attic rooms of abandoned buildings. It eats mice, rats, rabbits, birds and their young ones and eggs. It also attacks poultry. It is a fierce animal and kills more birds than it can eat. The beech marten has no enemies.
The beech marten mates in July-August. The pregnancy lasts about 250 days. In the beginning of May it gives birth to 2-6 young ones. For about 30 days they are blind. By autumn they grow and start living independent life.
The beech marten’s skin is valuable. It belongs to the group of harmful game, but shooting is limited and is on a quota basis. Its skin and skull have trophy value.
European polecat hunting trips in Bulgaria
Mustela Putorios L.
The European polecat is generally distributed across Europe. It is frequently found in plains and mountains in Bulgaria. It lives in farm yards, in forests swampy lands.
The fur of the European polecat is dark brown, its snout is lighter and the belly is pale yellow. It has a long tail and short legs. It is bigger than the weasel. The male weighs around 1.7 kg, and the female – 0.7 kg. Body length of males ranges from 29.5 to 46 cm, and the tail from 10.5 to 19 cm; body length of females ranges from 20.5 to 38.5 cm, and the tail from 7 to 14 cm.
Way of life and feeding
The European polecats are active at night. They build their lair in the embankments along streams or dig a hole under the roots of trees. Their territory is limited to about 1 km. It is a carnivore. It eats frogs, voles, rats and other small animals. It eats 12-14 mice for one day. After it finishes eating it kills more rodents and stores them as reserves.
Mating is in March or April. The female gives birth to 3 to 10 young ones that begin to see in a month, they become independent in 2-3 months, and are sexually mature in 10 months. They live for 5-6 years. The young ones live with their mother almost until next summer.
The fur of the European polecat is extremely valuable and is used in the fur industry. It kills harmful rodents thus being useful for agriculture, but it also attacks poultry. It belongs to the group of harmful game so shooting is permitted at any time.
Wildcat hunting trips in Bulgaria
Felis Silvestris Schreb
The area of distribution of the wildcat covers Europe, Middle East, Central and South Asia. It is found in the plains and mountains of Bulgaria.
The wildcat is larger than the pet cat. Its body is covered with soft, thick hair, brown-grey in colour. Females have a slightly yellowish tone. Its snout is reddish and yellow and the nose – meaty red, it has three longitudinal black stripes on its forehead. Along its back up to the tail, it has two dark stripes that extend laterally with transverse dark patterns. Its tail is fluffy with three or four transverse stripes and the tip is black and ends equally.
Way of life and feeding
The wildcat is a typical forest animal, inhabiting rocky or forest areas. It prefers hunting at night and avoids encountering people, that’s why the direct sight of it is very rare. It is active at night, and the day spends sleeping. It spends the winter in holes or hollows, and in summer it leads nomadic lifestyle. Its food depends on its habitat. In planes it attacks pheasants, partridges, etc. and in the mountains it catches rodents, birds, sometimes fawns, etc., thus damaging hunting.
Wildcat lives alone, and avoids the company of fellows outside the breeding season, which is twice a year (spring and autumn). Once fertilized, the female secludes in a hollow of a tree, where in about two months gives birth to three to six young ones, that are breastfed for about four months. The young ones are born blind and helpless, like with the pet cat. Nowadays the wildcat has become a relatively rare animal, as pet cats and people displace it from the biotope, which it traditionally inhabits.
Wildcats are considered harmful animals so killing is permitted throughout the year. Wild pet cats could be found very often in nature. In colour they resemble the wildcat, but they have shorter and less shaggy tails. They also lack the white spot on the chest, which is apparent in the wildcats.
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Срокове на ловуване
Ловът на лисици е разрешен
Препоръчителни патрони със съчмен заряд за отстрел на лисица
Екипът на БГ Ловци (bghunters.com) Ви препоръчва следните патрони:
- Препоръчителни патрони - 32g за 16 кал. и 12 кал.
- № на сачмите - 2/0, 4/0
- Разстояние - 25-35 метра
Разпространение на лисицата
Лисицата се среща в прериите и полупустинните, горите, степите и лесостепите. Може да се види в предградията и дори в градски райони, като живее заедно с други дребни хищници. В България видът е повсеместно разпространен.
Общи сведения за лисицата
Козината на лисицата е с ръждив цвят. Има бял корем и черни уши и крака. Очите са златисто-жълти и имат отличителни вертикални отсечени зеници като котките. Дългата й рунтава опашка, която има характерни бели връхчета, осигурява равновесието
й при скоци и отскоци. Възрастната лисица има тегло 4,1-5,4 kg. Дължината на тялото е 80-110 сm. Големината й е различна в зависимост от местообитанието. През есента и зимата козината й е дълга и гъста, а през пролетта и до края на
лятото - къса.
Начин на живот и хранене на лисицата
Лисиците са всеядни животни. Хранят се с гризачи, насекоми, плодове, червеи, мърша, яйца, мишки и други малки животни и домашни птици. Лисицата е един от най-сериозните наши съюзници в борбата с мишевидните гризачи, които често преобладават
в менюто й. Консумират средно 0,5-1 kg храна на ден.
Размножаване при лисицата
Размножителният период на лисицата е декември-януари, а в по-високите и северни части на ареала й през февруари-април. Женските имат ежегоден еструс, който продължава 1-6 дена. Овулацията е спонтанна. Копулацията е шумна и кратка и трае
не повече от 20 секунди. Въпреки че една женска може да се чифтоса с няколко мъжки (които се борят за нея), тя накрая избира да живее само с един. Мъжките донасят храна на женските до и след раждането, като по принцип я оставят с малките
в "майчинската бърлога". Средният брой лисичета от едно котило са 5, а максимално до 13 лисичета. Малките се раждат слепи и тежат до 150 грама. Проглеждат до около 2 седмици и правят първи крачки извън бърлогата до 5 седмици. Майката
ги отбива около 10-тата седмица, когато те са достигнали своята полова зрялост.
Поведение на лисицата
Лисиците са сумрачни животни, но в по-гъсто населените райони те са активни най-вече през нощта и привечер или сутрин рано (по сумрак). По принцип ловуват поединично, а ако си намери повече храна, я скрива за по-късно. Всяка лисица маркира
своята територия с урина и фекалии. Лисиците се чифтосват само през зимата, а през лятото си търсят храна, като устройват по няколко бърлоги в тези територии. Те могат да бъдат извзети от предишни обитатели като например язовците,
или да бъдат направени наново. През зимата се използва една основна бърлога, където лисицата живее, ражда и отглежда малките. По-малките бърлоги са предназначени за случаи на опасност и за складиране на храна. Най-често лисичета бързо
се разпръскват, когато достигнат полова зрялост (8-10 месеца), но не рядко остават в родната територия и помагат за отглеждането на следващото поколение.
Според някои изследователи индивидите, които не се размножават, осигуряват възможността малките да оцелеят, докато според други разликата е несъществена. Лисиците комуникират с езика на тялото си, с миризмата си и с вокализации (звуци).
Гласовият диапазон е голям и звуците, които издават, могат да бъдат от тип "загубих се" (три излайвания) до тип "писък", близък до човешкото пищене.
Природозащитен статут на лисицата
Според Конвенцията по международна търговия със застрашени видове от дивата фауна и флора, лисицата е отнесена към застрашените видове, но повечето от популациите им са стабилни. Отстрелът е на квотен принцип.
Мястото и ролята на лисицата в екосистемата
Доказано е, че лисици могат да окажат влияние върху популациите на гризачите, включително зайците и ловните птици. Те разпространят семена на изядените от тях плодове. Тяхната положителна или отрицателна роля за развитието на екосистемите,
ловното стопанство и птицевъдството трябва да се оценява за всеки конкретен случай.
Стопанско значение на лисицата
Съгласно своята биология и начин на хранене, лисицата изяжда голямо количество мишки и други вредни гризачи, с което допринася полза на селското стопанство. Унищожава обаче и много полезен дивеч - зайци, фазани, яребици. Преносител е на
бяса и затова при висока плътност се преследва през цялата година. Кожата й е ценна и търсена. Ловува се при хайки и гонки, но най-често чрез издебване край примамки. Трофейна стойност имат кожата и черепът й.